Final Project – PD

Student Name: Patrycja D.

Project Site: Anheuser Busch, Newark, New Jersey

Title: Newark’s Anheuser Busch: The Unsuspected Leader In Sustainable Brewing Practices   

I Remember My First Bud Light

            Growing up around beer and various parts of the beer industry, it was only natural I’d end up working with beer. Being around the American craft beer industry, which comprises primarily microbreweries that make no more than 15,000 barrels of beer annually, always meant that macro-breweries, like Anheuser Busch, were to be disliked. Macro-breweries recipes were devalued because they were considered too bland and due to their production size, they could not be safe for the environment. Making them the craft beer industry’s arch nemesis. What this paper originally set to find out was just how evil Anheuser Busch was and to quantify all the terrible “things” it has done to the environment.

            After weeks of digging, and buying my first Bud Light, something I swore I’d never do, that stigma has been busted. Anheuser Busch is not the evil macro-brewery it has been set up to be. Across Anheuser Busch’s breweries, they have solar panels, donate spent grain to become cattle feed, recycle both bottles and cans, and largest surprise, Anheuser Busch is the “largest user of bio-energy recovery systems that convert wastewater from the brewing process into a renewable fuel.”[1] Having the Anheuser Busch’s Newark brewery so close, it became a personal mission to prove that Anheuser Busch is not as bad as it’s portrayed among indie, craft breweries; that it too can be a leader in sustainably and that it’s production size does not interfere with the brewery’s environmental sustainability and strides. I stumbled upon a lot of videos about what craft beer stands for and was surprised to find that Anheuser Busch does just as much community give-back as many microbreweries do. With humble beginnings, Anheuser Busch was once a small, immigrant ran microbrewery in Missouri, and it has not forgot its roots even as its become the giant brewery that its is today. Below is a video essay stitching together the videos I found, shedding some light on the true nature of Anheuser.

The video puts together videos from Anheuser Busch TV commercials and interviews with Sam Calagione, owner of Dogfish Head, a microbrewery out of Delaware. The final clips are from Anheuser’s recent campaign to delivery clean water to places in need, due to recent natural disasters.

            As I dug in the archives several questions kept popping into my head, including, why Anheuser Busch was painted as an enemy by the craft beer industry? And what made them sustainable compared to what some microbreweries are doing? More specifically to Newark, I was curious about when Anheuser’s Newark brewery moved into the city, what its beer scene was like at that point in time, and how it fit into the city. Following questions revolved around the brewery’s effect on how its operations changed Newark in regards to water, waste, and recycling? Finally, how does its operations change tell a story about contemporary craft beer culture?

            In order to answer these questions, I dug into different types of sources: both from social media and academic. The combination between social and scholarly sources made this search an anthropological study, looking into marketing and the relationship between brewery and consumer. There is a cultural history in the beer industry which is based around advertising and packaging. A lot of sources are from breweries websites and social media, primarily Instagram. Sources are also pulled from beer packaging, blogs, non-academic articles, and conversations with employees at micro-breweries, usually over a pint or two. The scholarly sources, making up the bulk of the historical information on Anheuser Busch and brewing in the 1950’s, come from beer-related journals and articles. Together, the combination of both social and scholarly sources emphasis the change over time which launched Anheuser-Busch to the forefront of sustainability in the American beer market.

            After a brief history of Anheuser in Newark, this paper will follow the brewing process, first looking at issues around water, then ingredient waste, and finally recycling. Water being the most important ingredient in the brewing process, it is the most used and most wasted. Ingredient waste follows the reuse of grains and how carbon used by trucks moving ingredients across the country, adds to a brewery’s environmental damage. Finally, once an item leaves a brewery, whether a glass bottle, aluminum can, or the paper carrier it is in, it also adds to possible environmental damage. Under these three categories, it will be looking at both Anheuser Busch, in general, as well as various well known microbreweries from the United States. Pressure from microbreweries, and developing craft beer culture, pushed and persuaded a macro-brewery such as Anheuser Busch to reach and maintain sustainable practices in order to compete with the consumer market and the industry, as well as highlight the importance of environmental justice as it pertains to renewable practices associated with water, ingredient waste and recycling.

The History and Cultural Impact of a Brewing Giant in Newark, New Jersey

            Originally hailing from St. Louis, Missouri, Anheuser Busch moved into Newark in 1951, and thus began the rapid decline in the beer industry within the city. Anheuser moved up north in 1951, in order to brew beer and ship it shorter distances for their customers in the North East[2]. The brewery transplanted into Newark after World War II, when the city was still an industrial powerhouse, making it the ideal location for large, mainly mechanized, brewery. Most industries experienced their highest levels of productivity and at that time, success in the city tended to come with a price: degradation to the environment[3]. As it concerned Anheuser Busch, this did not seem the case, but their public involvement in sustainability did not come until later.

            When Anheuser Busch moved up in 1951, it began the shutdown of all other beer production in Newark, to which it has not yet replaced. One of the most well-known beers coming out of Newark was produced by the Gottfried Krueger Brewing Company. The 1950s saw consolidation in the brewing industry, and macro-breweries like Anheuser Busch “squeezed out market share.” A decade later, as stated by Newark Business, a site dedicated to the celebration of industry leaders in post-riot Newark, the “Krueger brewery drained its tanks of their last trickles of beer and closed its doors for good.”[4] Relentless competition added the Gottfried Krueger Brewing Company to its long list of victims, along with P. Ballantine and Sons Brewing Company. By the mid-1960’s the brewery was already in decline, but managed to stay in the industry a decade longer than Krueger. Ballantine, once a renowned brewery from Newark, New Jersey, “with a capacity of five million barrels a year, the brewery [was] one of the largest in the country,” as per Ronald Sullivan’s 1972 article “Newark Losing Ballantine Plant” from the New York Times. Sadly in 1972, it closed its doors, and was absorbed by Falstaff Brewing Corporation, which moved the brewery out of Newark, devastating many Black and Puerto Rican families of a local business and jobs.[5] Anheuser Busch grew with Newark as it continued to become a metropolitan, industrial powerhouse, monopolizing the brewing scene in the city.

Advertisement for Kruger’s brewery, located in Newark, NJ.
Source: http://www.beerhistory.com/library/holdings/krueger.shtml

            The image of Anheuser Busch as wasteful industrial polluter is evident in Newark’s cultural history. For instance, one perspective of the Anheuser Busch brewery in Newark was captured by an artist’s oil painting. Valeri Larko’s painting from 1999 suggests the Anheuser Busch Brewing plant is over-glorified as a mecca of industrialization — producing a landscape which is riddled with abandonment, and environmental degradation (See painting below).

 Mt. Olive Cemetery 1999 oil on linen • 26” x 46” private collection by Valeri Larko

            These central most dominant figure in the painting, is the mountainous landscape, made up by the red-brick Anheuser Busch brewery in the background. The brewery is highlighted by its color contrast, being the only figure, which is reddish-brown against a gray sky and among green foliage. Larko described seeing the distilling towers as “the yellow stacks of a factory, transformed by sunlight … [which] remind [her] of a cathedral.”[6] This is no coincidence given the religious iconography in a cemetery, but it also speaks to the worship of big production and industry in Newark. The stark white cross with a crucified Jesus juxtaposed on the right side of the brewery, at about the same size, suggests this. The big white cross is intentionally contrasted against dark green foliage in order to highlight the brewery’s importance and suggest there is a similarity between the martyrship of Jesus and the way big industry has given Newark its name across the globe. Larko’s view was not unique at the time. The Anheuser Busch Brewery’s shadow is perhaps a visual metaphor for the brewery being a ghost from a different, more momentous era, which is why this particular painting is located in a cemetery, among tombstones.

            The issue of abandoned areas in Newark was not something Larko criticized on her own. Newark was becoming a ghost town in the 1990’s — the abandoned homes and lots in Newark pushed residents out, and residents, such as those in Karen Yi’s NJ.com article “This N.J. Block is Dying, One Abandoned Property at a Time,” “can’t take this anymore.” According to Newark’s abandoned property registry, in 2017, there are more than two thousand abandoned or vacant properties in the city.[7] It is perspectives such as Larko’s which add to the negative stigma around macro-breweries. It seems to lose the fact that breweries such as Anheuser Busch were also once small, microbreweries, but through popularity, price points, and industry merges, it has gained a lot of recognition and there is something to be said about the impressiveness to create a beer that that tastes the same every time it’s brewed, which is not a small feat. Larko’s environmental angle is moot as the 90’s were a big time in Anheuser’s large, corporate push towards sustainability.

“It’s The Water”[8]

            The brewing industry has always been conscious about the importance of clean water. Since breweries used water for both brewing and cleaning, clean-water practices have always been the cornerstone of any brewery’s operations plan and location. Historically, a brewery has always been placed near a body of water, as water takes up ninety percent of the brewing process. As the trade journal The American Brewer explained in a 1941 advertisement titled “Dealers in Malt and Hops” a “very good water supply” was a key ingredient to any brewery’s net worth.[9] This does not come as a surprise when one realizes most of America’s breweries are located along the coastal states.

            Wastewater at a brewery, whether from brewing or clean up, may be “discharged in several ways including the following: (1) directly into a waterway (oceans, rivers, streams, or lakes), (2) directly into a municipal sewer system, (3) into the waterway or municipal sewer system after the wastewater has undergone some pretreatment, and (4) into the brewery’s own wastewater treatment plant.” The disposal of untreated or partially treated wastewater into bodies of water can create potential or severe pollution problems since the “effluents contain organic compounds that require oxygen for degradation.”[10] Anheuser Busch’s water, comes from the Passaic River, where it undergoes mass filtration and purification in order to maintain a high standard of water quality. Aloha Beer Co., a micro-brewery located in Hawaii, took that concept one step forward by using ocean water to create their own natural salt to add to a salty beer style, known as a gose.[11] Due to its large importance in the beer-making process, and the flavor of one’s beer and its sanitary importance, it is safe to assume all breweries maintain a very high standard of care with their water supply.

            Not only is Anheuser Busch located near the Passaic River, it is directly across from Newark International Airport. There are no sources to prove whether Anheuser Busch was directly dumping chemicals, wastewater or other debris into local water bodies. Nor is there information whether they were improperly filtering it and making consumers sick. However, the location on the Newark’s Anheuser Busch brewery poses other risks. Using the publicly funded and accessible Environmental Justice Screening and Mapping Tool, creating a one mile radius around the brewery, environmentally, the area around the Anheuser Busch Brewery tends to have very high levels in the categories of O-Zone, Hazardous Waste Proximity, and Wastewater Discharge Indicator. In the fields of Hazardous Waste Proximity, in this area, it is in a higher national percentile, 94th, compared to the state, 88th. On the other hand, in Wastewater Discharge Indication, this area, which is in the state’s 89th percentile, is locally producing more wastewater compared to the national average, which is in the 73rd percentile. The biggest fault with this data lies in the brewery’s proximity to the airport, which is undeniably a very large contributor to ozone harm, producer of hazardous waste, and wastewater. This proximity makes it difficult to specifically pinpoint the brewery as the sole cause of environmental degradation, but it could help explain why the brewery would want to push for a very sustainable facility. 

EJScreen Data: One-Mile Radius Around Anheuser Busch Brewery

            Many microbreweries were initially created with sustainability in mind, particularly in the ninety’s. One local New Jersey brewery, Flying Fish, located in Somerdale, originally started as a virtual microbrewery online, connected people and investors through their large ideas about brewing and sustainability. When it came time to create a large scale brewery, reducing water and energy consumption was part of the plan. They installed a “brew kettle [which] recaptures all steam that would normally vent to atmosphere and create 1 gallon of hot water for every 5 gallons of beer brewed … other savings come from reusing process water for cleaning operations.”[12] They also created “rain gardens on site to prevent erosion.”[13] This is so much of their business model, they have this information along with other ways they practice sustainability on their six pack carriers and the cardboard boxes their six packs come in.

Bottom of Redfish Red IPA six pack bottle carrier from Flying Fish.

            The ninety’s played a crucial part in craft beer history. The craft beer revolution picked up speed at this moment and just like Flying Fish, many breweries took sustainability to be an important part in their responsibly as a brewery, most likely due to the large quantities of water they would be using. Coincidently, this is the same time Anheuser Busch went public with their own sustainable goals. Although Anheuser Busch was not as outright about their sustainable plans for the future, in 2018, they published a projected 2025 plan, where by the end of that year, they would be the leaders of sustainability in the beer industry. Breaking the plan up into four areas, water stewardship being one of them: “100% of facilities will be engaged in water efficiency efforts; and 100% of communities in high stress areas will have measurably improved water availability and quality.”[14] Although there are still a few more years until they reach their goals, Anheuser Busch has creeping at the goals by spearheading a new campaign for clean ingredients in their beer, eliminating corn syrup from the recipe. Promoting beer as a natural product, further emphasized by clean ingredients, they believe it is a part of their responsibly to maintain a healthy environment. Apart from water, the cleanup and maintenance of spent ingredients is another large throw away product of the brewing process.

Grain and Carbon Dioxide: The Less Than Dynamic Duo

            Microbreweries have made issues surrounding by-product elimination and ingredient sourcing as their biggest sustainable problem. Ninety percent of beer is created with water, the remaining ten percent is a precise and sometimes experimental combination of malt, hops, and yeast. Many breweries now use pellets of dried hops because they transport a lot better and remain fresher longer. Some styles, particularly in India Pale Ales, brewers will opt for fresh hops, in which the entire flower will be used in the brew, but these have a short shelf life. Once hops are used in a brew, it will used a few times more, as long as it maintains its flavor. In an interview with an employee at the Brooklyn Brewery, a well know microbrewery in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, NYC, he mentioned the brewery uses its hops as often as possible and only after it loses its flavor integrity, meaning it will be used multiple times, they will throw it out, as it is not edible. However, the brewery will donate their spent grain to local farmers.[15] Spent grain is mash left over from the use of barley, wheat or other grains to add flavor and color to beer. These grains remain in the brew for a long time, creating a mash, typically creating a delicious oatmeal scent which travels across the brewery. This mash cannot be used again, as it is boiled until all the flavor is extracted.

            These grains make incredible feed for farm animals and are given away in large bins full. Not only for farm animals, but some startups are trying to use spent grain to create plant based protein for vegetarians and vegans. In 2017, Canvas, a beverage start up backed exclusively by Anheuser Busch InBev, this group took spent grain and turned it into a sustainable ingredient.[16] Anheuser Busch donates their spent grain as well, but taking that a step further they are trying to cut back on carbon pollution which is synchronous with transporting grains from farms to breweries and beer to markets. Anheuser Busch added the lowering of carbon emissions, and switching to cleaner trucks, in order to bring in ingredients and deliver their beer nationwide, as one of the four main aspects in their 2025 sustainability plans.

            Most of America’s beer ingredients, primarily hops, are grown on the west coast, in California and Washington, making added carbon emissions from transporting across the nation potentially hazardous. There are separate corporations who grow, dry, and pack dried hops into pellet-shapes for distribution across the nation. This does not seem like a problem for breweries in which are located near those farms and distributors, but breweries on the east coast have turned to local farmers and other breweries across the nation have started their own farms in order to cut down on carbon and other truck emissions. In the case of Newark, the city is already jam packed with truck traffic on the highway and in the neighborhood leaves Anheuser to take a stand against all the pollution they aid in creating, as Anheuser Busch’s Newark brewery brews beer for the entire Northeast. Rogue Ales and Spirits, located in Oregon, used their social media platform to inform the public about their Rogue Farm, which “grows more than a dozen ingredients for [their] beer, spirits, cider and soda [including:] ten varieties of hops, two varieties of malting barley, rye, pumpkins, marionberries, jalapeños and honey, [which are used] to create [their] craft beverages.”[17] The Farm is located less than one hundred miles away from the brewery, making it a lot shorter of a route from Washington or California, and gives them the flexibility to experiment with flavors, which is an element in craft brewing.

            Besides owning their own farms, some breweries opted for collaborating with farmers in their area in order to reduce travel length. Stone Brewing began a Farm to Can series in 2019. The first beer of the series includes hops grown in Moxee, Washington, presenting itself loud and proud on the packaging.[18] This type of marketing aids both the brewery and farm. In the case of Troegs Independent Brewing, located in Hershey, Pennsylvania, when it came time to brew LolliHop DIPA, they enlisted the help of Dustin and Cody Musser of Mount Joy, Pennsylvania, fifteen minutes away from the brewery, to grow what Troegs called the “backbone of our new Double IPA LilliHop.”[19] They believe it’s important to keep craft maltsters in Pennsylvania, to help them stick around and thrive.

The top of Stone’s Moxee Gold IPA, proudly adverting the collaboration with a grower rather than growing their own for this particular brew.

            Due to its popularity and large effect on one’s carbon emissions, Anheuser Busch, who has multiple breweries across the United States, fittingly have their “own hop farms in Bonners Ferry, ID, and the Hallertau region of Germany.”[20] Anheuser Busch also owns a mill in Arkansas as they are famous for adding rice into their recipe. In order to transport all of this, they said they are committed “to reduce the environmental impact of its supply chain, [furthermore] Anheuser Busch last year committed to purchasing 40 Tesla electric powered trucks.”[21] Feeling the heat about growing and using one’s own resources got to Anheuser and influenced their idea about how they plan on expanding it. Owning a farm or collaboration with local famers not only stimulates the local economy, but it also reduces the carbon output of a brewery. After beer is bottled or canned, how it gets delivered to the consumer extends its sustainable and reusable life.

Bottles Versus Cans: It’s More Than About Freshness

            The argument between recycling of bottles and cans as well as the recycling and reuse of boxes and carriers are an extension of a breweries investment into a plan towards sustainability. The history of the beer bottle’s importance is that it once signified a relationship between two artisans: a glass blower and brewer. According to a site aptly named “All About Beer,” glass bottles typically fit “the traditional spectrum of clear, green and dark amber glass.” Some breweries molded special bottles with their names or special designs sculpted onto them, for example New Belgium. Others used bottles for specific beers, especially wheat beers such as a hefeweizen, where the glass bottles have bulbous necks to collect unfiltered particles of wheat as the beer pours. A lot of breweries will release 750 ml specialty brews in glass bottles, dishing out a little extra money with the idea that they could charge a little more due to the use of glass. Budweiser remains both cans and bottles in order to serve their very wide demographics. Budweiser and Bud Light in bottles suits an older clientele while Bud Light Platinum and Bid Light in cans tends to be a choice by a younger generation. Most brewers choose brown bottles, because they let in the least amount of ultraviolet light, beer’s worst enemy, which negatively affects the alpha acid in hops, resulting in light-struck, off flavor, commonly experienced as “skunked.”[22] Moving away from the cost of glass bottles, the trend in the micro brewing industry has been a shift into canning beer.

            Many contemporary craft microbreweries have been using cans, some are switching their operations to all cans. The idea here was that cans are infinitely recyclable and light cannot penetrate them. They are also cheaper for breweries to buy, and transport a lot easier. Aluminum cans stack neater and one could fit a lot more into a truck than one could with bottles, therefore it lowers the amount of trips and carbon used to move trucks full of beer to distributors and warehouses. In Anheuser Busch’s 1991 commercial, they advertised themselves as the leaders in recycling. As of 2019, it is unknown whether Anheuser Busch will switch to strictly cans or bottles, as they have too many consumers who prefer one or the other. In their 2025 plan, all their breweries will be over 99% recyclable, but it’s unclear what exactly this entails.

            Besides bottles, Anheuser Busch is part of an initiative to make carries and their cardboard recyclable. Bart Elmore of The Business History Review, spelled out the timeline of how large corporations such as Coca Cola and Anheuser Busch started “green campaigns” in the fifties largely due to consumers uneasy attitude about the waste leftover after one’s bought and consumed products from these big businesses. According to Elmore, “for the soft-drink, brewing, and canning industries, the promise of recycling became a powerful weapon for combating mandatory deposit bills and other source-reduction measures in the 1970s and 1980s.”[23] This also aids to explain why sustainability and eco-consciousness is embedded in contemporary breweries ideologies. Many microbreweries are associated with forestry stewardships, using recycled paper to make products. Flying Dog Brewery has adapted their Raging Bitch cardboard boxes to use less ink, this makes the box a lot safer to recycle and decompose. All in all, Anheuser Busch is paving the path toward running the show as it pertains to brewery sustainability, but it still has a few things to learn from other breweries.

Anheuser Busch as Tomorrow’s Sustainability Leader

            Anheuser Busch’s future, after the nineteen-nineties relied on adapting and changing its sustainability approach in order to remain relevant and competitive in the market. All of this change happened while microbreweries already instilled sustainability and community give-back into their business’ framework. From the installation of solar powered panels, to donating fresh, filtered water to areas of America that need it, Anheuser Busch has not been the terrible, corporate brewery I was made to think it was. That stigma must have picked up when more and more breweries were claiming their Independent Brewers certification. Independent or not, Anheuser is pushing the bounds for what the future of brewing could be, particularly with its sustainable goals. It still unclear what they do with their wastewater, but it is fair to say that they are most likely not contaminating any other bodies of water, as there is no evidence to prove it and fresh, clean water is sacred to brewing. From water to grain and carbon, Anheuser’s backing of experimental ways to recycle grain is fascinating and exciting. There are companies that make dog biscuits out of spent grain, but Anheuser’s investigation on the human benefits of ingesting spent grain could open another market. Finally, the debate about glass bottles or cans will not be answered by anything in Anheuser Busch’s 2025 plan, but it will make its way back onto the table as soon as more and more indie craft breweries only can their beer.

            The stigma around Anheuser Busch will be broken down as their sustainability goals are met, propelling them into the foreground, as industry leaders. There is something to say in the mastery of creating a mass produced beer which tastes the same every time. It’s also easy to forget that yes machines spin and heat up the beer, but it is brew masters watching, tasting, and providing the expertise to get the years old recipes exactly right each time. It does seem like a lack of ingenuity in that they do not have has wide of a flavor portfolio as many microbreweries do, but some might say, “if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.” So I will raise my sixteen ounce pour of Budweiser, and propose a toast to Anheuser Busch: to keep on the good work of environmental consciousness, unexpectedly ruling the brewing kingdom as the sustainable “King of Beers.”


[1] Bocis, Gene R., Jr. Sustainability Session. Proceedings of 2012 World Brewing Congress. Accessed 2012. https://www.mbaa.com/meetings/archive/2012/Proceedings/pages/220.aspx.

[2] No particular source is this information pulled from, it is the operation procedure for many macro-breweries. By moving into key locations of the country, they reduce the cost of shipping from their flagship brewery.

[3] This was just typical of many industries at the time, workers health, research into material’s effect on the Earth and dumpsite had not yet determined laws and practices for large-scale production factories. It is also before the Newark Riots of 1967, which lead to the decline of Newark as a city.

[4] Gottfried Krueger Brewing Company. Accessed May 13, 2019. http://newarkbusiness.org/brewers/kk/krueger.php.

[5] Special, Ronald Sullivan. “Newark Losing Ballantine Plant.” The New York Times. March 04, 1972. Accessed May 13, 2019. https://www.nytimes.com/1972/03/04/archives/brewery-is-sold-to-falstaff-which-will-keep-brand-ballantine-sold.html.

Ballantine was one of the largest businesses in the Ironbound district which employed Black and Puerto Rican community members. When Falstaff assumed Ballantine, they offered to move former employees to one of their locations, but the closest one was in Rhode Island, and that was simply out of the question for their former brewery employees. It is unclear whether they went to work for Anheuser Busch on moved onto other jobs.

[6] Urban and Industrial Early Paintings. Accessed March 22, 2019. http://www.valerilarko.com/valeri_contents/galleries/industrial/industrial_paintings.html.

[7] Yi, Karen. “This N.J. Block Is Dying, One Abandoned Property at a Time.” Nj.com. September 03, 2017. Accessed March 22, 2019. https://www.nj.com/essex/2017/09/newark_abandoned_properties_pushing_longtime_homeo.html.

[8] Olympia Beer’s slogan and claim to fame was the freshness and purity of their water supply near Olympia, Washington.

[9] “Dealers in Malt an Hops” The American Brewer 74, no. 06 (1941): 68.

[10] Simate, Geoffrey S., John Cluett, Sunny E. Iyuke, Evans T. Musapatika, Sehliselo Ndlovu, Lubinda F. Walubita, and Allex E. Alvarez. “The Treatment of Brewery Wastewater for Reuse: State of the Art.” Desalination 273, no. 2-3 (2011): 235-47. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2011.02.035.

[11] Morgankaya. “This Craft Beer Is Brewed with Ocean Water.” Frolic Hawaii. October 18, 2017. Accessed May 13, 2019. https://www.frolichawaii.com/stories/craft-beer-brewed-ocean-water.

[12] “Sustainability.” Flying Fish Brewing Co. Accessed May 13, 2019. https://www.flyingfish.com/about/sustainability/.

[13] Flying Fish. Redfish IPA six-pack bottle carrier. Sustainability information on bottom of carrier. Purchased May, 2019.

[14] “Anheuser-Busch Announces U.S. 2025 Sustainability Goals.” Home. Accessed May 13, 2019. https://www.anheuser-busch.com/newsroom/20071/04/anheuser-busch-announces-u-s–2025-sustainability-goals.html.

[15] A few notes taken during a conversation and facility tour with employee Mike S. from Brooklyn Brewery in early October 2018.

[16] “Grain Gains: Canvas Spins Beer Byproduct into Plant-Based Protein.” BevNET.com. December 29, 2017. Accessed May 13, 2019. https://www.bevnet.com/news/2017/grain-gains-canvas-spins-beer-byproduct-plant-based-protein.

[17] Farms. Accessed May 13, 2019. https://www.rogue.com/farms.

[18] Stone Brewing. Moxee Gold IPA six-pack can carrier. Front and bottle of carrier include advertisement for collaboration. Purchased May 2019.

[19] Instagram. @troegsbeer Posted March 24

[20] Brewing Process & Ingredients. Accessed May 13, 2019. https://www.anheuser-busch.com/about/brewing.html.

[21] “Anheuser-Busch Announces U.S. 2025 Sustainability Goals.” Home. Accessed May 13, 2019. https://www.anheuser-busch.com/newsroom/20071/04/anheuser-busch-announces-u-s–2025-sustainability-goals.html.

[22] “Critical Glass: The Enduring Power of Beer Bottles.” All About Beer. Accessed May 13, 2019. http://allaboutbeer.com/article/critical-glass-the-enduring-power-of-beer-bottles/.

All information in paragraph is from this source.

[23] Elmore, Bartow J. “The American Beverage Industry and the Development of Curbside Recycling Programs, 1950-2000.” The Business History Review 86, no. 3 (2012): 477-501. http://www.jstor.org/stable/41720628.

Bibliography

“Anheuser-Busch Announces U.S. 2025 Sustainability Goals.” Home. Accessed May 13, 2019. https://www.anheuser-busch.com/newsroom/20071/04/anheuser-busch-announces-u-s–2025-sustainability-goals.html.

Bocis, Gene R., Jr. Sustainability Session. Proceedings of 2012 World Brewing Congress. Accessed 2012. https://www.mbaa.com/meetings/archive/2012/Proceedings/pages/220.aspx.

Brewing Process & Ingredients. Accessed May 13, 2019. https://www.anheuser-busch.com/about/brewing.html.

Brooklyn Brewery. Conversation had with Mike S. after facility tour. Early October 2018.

“Critical Glass: The Enduring Power of Beer Bottles.” All About Beer. Accessed May 13, 2019. http://allaboutbeer.com/article/critical-glass-the-enduring-power-of-beer-bottles/.

“Dealers in Malt an Hops” The American Brewer 74, no. 06 (1941): 68.

Elmore, Bartow J. “The American Beverage Industry and the Development of Curbside Recycling Programs, 1950-2000.” The Business History Review 86, no. 3 (2012): 477-501. http://www.jstor.org/stable/41720628.

Farms. Accessed May 13, 2019. https://www.rogue.com/farms.

“Sustainability.” Flying Fish Brewing Co. Accessed May 13, 2019. https://www.flyingfish.com/about/sustainability/.

Flying Fish. Redfish IPA six-pack bottle carrier. Sustainability information on bottom of carrier. Purchased May, 2019.

Gottfried Krueger Brewing Company. Accessed May 13, 2019. http://newarkbusiness.org/brewers/kk/krueger.php.

“Grain Gains: Canvas Spins Beer Byproduct into Plant-Based Protein.” BevNET.com. December 29, 2017. Accessed May 13, 2019. https://www.bevnet.com/news/2017/grain-gains-canvas-spins-beer-byproduct-plant-based-protein.

Instagram. @troegsbeer Posted March 24

Morgankaya. “This Craft Beer Is Brewed with Ocean Water.” Frolic Hawaii. October 18, 2017. Accessed May 13, 2019. https://www.frolichawaii.com/stories/craft-beer-brewed-ocean-water.

Simate, Geoffrey S., John Cluett, Sunny E. Iyuke, Evans T. Musapatika, Sehliselo Ndlovu, Lubinda F. Walubita, and Allex E. Alvarez. “The Treatment of Brewery Wastewater for Reuse: State of the Art.” Desalination 273, no. 2-3 (2011): 235-47. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2011.02.035.

Special, Ronald Sullivan. “Newark Losing Ballantine Plant.” The New York Times. March 04, 1972. Accessed May 13, 2019. https://www.nytimes.com/1972/03/04/archives/brewery-is-sold-to-falstaff-which-will-keep-brand-ballantine-sold.html.

Stone Brewing. Moxee Gold IPA six-pack can carrier. Front and bottle of carrier include advertisement for collaboration. Purchased May 2019.

Urban and Industrial Early Paintings. Accessed March 22, 2019. http://www.valerilarko.com/valeri_contents/galleries/industrial/industrial_paintings.html.

Yi, Karen. “This N.J. Block Is Dying, One Abandoned Property at a Time.” Nj.com. September 03, 2017. Accessed March 22, 2019. https://www.nj.com/essex/2017/09/newark_abandoned_properties_pushing_longtime_homeo.html.